Euclid preparation. IV. Impact of undetected galaxies on weaklensing shear measurements
Abstract
In modern weaklensing surveys, the common approach to correct for residual systematic biases in the shear is to calibrate shape measurement algorithms using simulations. These simulations must fully capture the complexity of the observations to avoid introducing any additional bias. In this paper we study the importance of faint galaxies below the observational detection limit of a survey. We simulate simplified Euclid VIS images including and excluding this faint population, and measure the shift in the multiplicative shear bias between the two sets of simulations. We measure the shear with three different algorithms: a momentbased approach, model fitting, and machine learning. We find that for all methods, a spatially uniform random distribution of faint galaxies introduces a shear multiplicative bias of the order of a few times 10^{3}. This value increases to the order of 10^{2} when including the clustering of the faint galaxies, as measured in the Hubble Space Telescope UltraDeep Field. The magnification of the faint background galaxies due to the brighter galaxies along the line of sight is found to have a negligible impact on the multiplicative bias. We conclude that the undetected galaxies must be included in the calibration simulations with proper clustering properties down to magnitude 28 in order to reach a residual uncertainty on the multiplicative shear bias calibration of a few times 10^{4}, in line with the 2 × 10^{3} total accuracy budget required by the scientific objectives of the Euclid survey. We propose two complementary methods for including faint galaxy clustering in the calibration simulations.
Based on Hubble Space Telescope UltraDeep Field (HSTUDF) data.
 Publication:

Astronomy and Astrophysics
 Pub Date:
 July 2019
 DOI:
 10.1051/00046361/201935187
 arXiv:
 arXiv:1902.00044
 Bibcode:
 2019A&A...627A..59E
 Keywords:

 gravitational lensing: weak;
 cosmology: observationsxs;
 surveys;
 Astrophysics  Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics
 EPrint:
 Version published in A&