Transitions between dissipative localized structures in the simplified Gilad-Meron model for dryland plant ecology
Spatially extended patterns and multistability of possible different states are common in many ecosystems, and their combination has an important impact on their dynamical behaviors. One potential combination involves tristability between a patterned state and two different uniform states. Using a simplified version of the Gilad-Meron model for dryland ecosystems, we study the organization, in bifurcation terms, of the localized structures arising in tristable regimes. These states are generally related to the concept of wave front locking and appear in the form of spots and gaps of vegetation. We find that the coexistence of localized spots and gaps, within tristable configurations, yields the appearance of hybrid states. We also study the emergence of spatiotemporal localized states consisting of a portion of a periodic pattern embedded in a uniform Hopf-like oscillatory background in a subcritical Turing-Hopf dynamical regime.