Pinning control of networks: Dimensionality reduction through simultaneous block-diagonalization of matrices
In this paper, we study the network pinning control problem in the presence of two different types of coupling: (i) node-to-node coupling among the network nodes and (ii) input-to-node coupling from the source node to the "pinned nodes." Previous work has mainly focused on the case that (i) and (ii) are of the same type. We decouple the stability analysis of the target synchronous solution into subproblems of the lowest dimension by using the techniques of simultaneous block diagonalization of matrices. Interestingly, we obtain two different types of blocks, driven and undriven. The overall dimension of the driven blocks is equal to the dimension of an appropriately defined controllable subspace, while all the remaining undriven blocks are scalar. Our main result is a decomposition of the stability problem into four independent sets of equations, which we call quotient controllable, quotient uncontrollable, redundant controllable, and redundant uncontrollable. Our analysis shows that the number and location of the pinned nodes affect the number and the dimension of each set of equations. We also observe that in a large variety of complex networks, the stability of the target synchronous solution is de facto only determined by a single quotient controllable block.