The study of topological phases of light suggests novel opportunities for creating robust optical structures and on-chip photonic devices which are immune against scattering losses and structural disorder. However, many recent demonstrations of topological effects in optics employ structures with relatively large scales. Here we discuss the physics and realisation of topological photonics on small scales, with the dimensions often smaller or comparable with the wavelength of light. We highlight the recent experimental demonstrations of small-scale topological states based on arrays of resonant nanoparticles and discuss a novel photonic platform employing higher-order topological effects for creating subwavelength highly efficient topologically protected optical cavities. We pay a special attention to the recent progress on topological polaritonic structures and summarize with our vision on the future directions of nanoscale topological photonics and its impact on other fields.