Light-matter interactions in chip-integrated niobium nano-circuit arrays at optical fibre communication frequencies
The interplay between electronic properties and optical response enables the realization of novel types of materials with tunable responses. Superconductors are well known to exhibit profound changes in the electronic structure related to the formation of Cooper pairs, yet their influence on the electromagnetic response in the optical regime has remained largely unstudied. Photonics metamaterials offer new opportunities to enhance the light-matter interaction, boosting the influence of subtle effects on the optical response. The combination of photonic metamaterials and superconducting quantum circuits will have the potential to advance quantum computing and quantum communication technologies. Here, we introduce subwavelength photonic nano-grating circuit arrays on the facet of niobium thin films to enhance light-matter interaction at fiber optic communication frequencies. We find that optical resonance shifts to longer wavelengths with increasing nano-grating circuit periodicity, indicating a clear modulation of optical light with geometrical parameters of the device. Next to the prominent subwavelength resonance, we find a second feature consisting of adjacent dip and peak appears at slightly shorter wavelengths around the diffraction condition Py= lambda, corresponding to the Wood and Rayleigh anomalies of the first order grating diffraction. The observed tunable plasmonic photo-response in such compact and integrated nano-circuitry enables new types of metamaterial and plasmonics-based modulators, sensors, and bolometer devices.