A Note on the Second Spectral Gap Incompleteness Theorem
Abstract
Pick a formal system. Any formal system. Whatever your favourite formal system is, as long as it's capable of reasoning about elementary arithmetic. The First Spectral Gap Incompleteness Theorem of [CPGW15] proved that there exist Hamiltonians whose spectral gap is independent of that system; your formal system is incapable of proving that the Hamiltonian is gapped, and equally incapable of proving that it's gapless. In this note, I prove a Second Spectral Gap Incompleteness Theorem: I show how to explicitly construct, within the formal system, a concrete example of a Hamiltonian whose spectral gap is independent of that system. Just to be sure, I prove this result three times. Once with Gödel's help. Once with Zermelo and Fraenkel's help. And finally, doing away with these highpowered friends, I give a simple, direct argument which reveals the inherent selfreferential structure at the heart of these results, by asking the Hamiltonian about its own spectral gap.
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 May 2021
 DOI:
 10.48550/arXiv.2105.09854
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2105.09854
 Bibcode:
 2021arXiv210509854C
 Keywords:

 Quantum Physics
 EPrint:
 9 pages, 0 figures, 1 table spoon of humour