Towards defining reference materials for extracellular vesicle size, concentration, refractive index and epitope abundance
Accurate characterization of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is critical to explore their diagnostic and therapeutic applications. As the EV research field has developed, so too have the techniques used to characterize them. The development of reference materials is required for the standardization of these techniques. This work, initiated from the ISEV 2017 Biomarker Workshop in Birmingham, UK, and with further discussion during the ISEV 2019 Standardization Workshop in Ghent, Belgium, sets out to elucidate which reference materials are required and which are currently available to standardize commonly used analysis platforms for characterizing EV size, concentration, refractive index, and epitope expression. Due to their predominant use, a particular focus is placed on the optical methods nanoparticle tracking analysis and flow cytometry.