Gravitational wave (GW) oscillations occur whenever there are additional tensor modes interacting with the perturbations of the metric coupled to matter. These extra modes can arise from new spin-2 fields (as in e.g. bigravity theories) or from non-trivial realizations of the cosmological principle induced by background vector fields with internal symmetries (e.g. Yang-Mills, gaugids or multi-Proca). We develop a general cosmological framework to study such novel features due to oscillations. The evolution of the two tensor modes is described by a linear system of coupled second order differential equations exhibiting friction, velocity, chirality and mass mixing. We follow appropriate schemes to obtain approximate solutions for the evolution of both modes and show the corresponding phenomenology for different mixings. Observational signatures include modulations of the wave-form, oscillations of the GW luminosity distance, anomalous GW speed and chirality. We discuss the prospects of observing these effects with present and future GW observatories such as LIGO/VIRGO and LISA.
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
- Pub Date:
- April 2020
- Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics;
- General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology;
- High Energy Physics - Theory
- 36 pages, 9 figures. Matches JCAP version