In this work, we study how the dust coagulation/fragmentation will influence the evolution and observational appearances of vortices induced by a massive planet embedded in a low-viscosity disk by performing global 2D high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. Within the vortex, due to its higher gas surface density and steeper pressure gradients, dust coagulation, fragmentation, and drift (to the vortex center) are all quite efficient, producing dust particles ranging from 1 μm to ∼1.0 cm, as well as an overall high dust-to-gas ratio (above unity). In addition, the dust size distribution is quite nonuniform inside the vortex, with the mass-weighted average dust size at the vortex center (∼4.0 mm) being a factor of ∼10 larger than other vortex regions. Both large (∼millimeter) and small (tens of microns) particles contribute strongly to affect the gas motion within the vortex. As such, we find that the inclusion of dust coagulation has a significant impact on the vortex lifetime and the typical vortex lifetime is about 1000 orbits. After the initial gaseous vortex is destroyed, the dust spreads into a ring with a few remaining smaller gaseous vortices with a high dust concentration and a large maximum size (∼millimeter). At late time, the synthetic dust continuum images for the coagulation case show as a ring inlaid with several hot spots at the 1.33 mm band, while only distinct hot spots remain at 7.0 mm.
The Astrophysical Journal
- Pub Date:
- April 2020
- Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics;
- Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics
- Accepted for publication in ApJL, 10 pages, 5 figures