We study the dynamics of vortices formed in a superfluid film adsorbed on the curved two-dimensional surface of a cone. To this aim, we observe that a cone can be unrolled to a sector on a plane with periodic boundary conditions on the straight sides. The sector can then be mapped conformally to the whole plane, leading to the relevant stream function. In this way, we show that a superfluid vortex on the cone precesses uniformly at fixed distance from the apex. The stream function also yields directly the interaction energy of two vortices on the cone. We then study the vortex dynamics on unbounded and bounded cones. In suitable limits, we recover the known results for dynamics on cylinders and planar annuli.