Optimal Online Transmission Policy in Wireless Powered Networks with Urgency-aware Age of Information
This paper investigates the age of information (AoI) for a radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting (EH) enabled network, where a sensor first scavenges energy from a wireless power station and then transmits the collected status update to a sink node. To capture the thirst for the fresh update becoming more and more urgent as time elapsing, urgency-aware AoI (U-AoI) is defined, which increases exponentially with time between two received updates. Due to EH, some waiting time is required at the sensor before transmitting the status update. To find the optimal transmission policy, an optimization problem is formulated to minimize the long-term average U-AoI under constraint of energy causality. As the problem is non-convex and with no known solution, a two-layer algorithm is presented to solve it, where the outer loop is designed based on Dinklebach's method, and in the inner loop, a semi-closed-form expression of the optimal waiting time policy is derived based on Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions. Numerical results shows that our proposed optimal transmission policy outperforms the the zero time waiting policy and equal time waiting policy in terms of long-term average U-AoI, especially when the networks are non-congested. It is also observed that in order to achieve the lower U-AoI, the sensor should transmit the next update without waiting when the network is congested while should wait a moment before transmitting the next update when the network is non-congested. Additionally, it also shows that the system U-AoI first decreases and then keep unchanged with the increments of EH circuit's saturation level and the energy outage probability.