Dynamical phase behavior of the single- and multi-lane asymmetric simple exclusion process via matrix product states
The open asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) has emerged as a paradigmatic model of nonequilibrium behavior, in part due to its complex dynamical behavior and wide physical applicability as a model of driven diffusion. We compare the dynamical phase behavior of the one-dimensional (1D) ASEP and the multi-lane ASEP, a previously unstudied extension of the 1D model that may be thought of as a finite-width strip of the fully two-dimensional (2D) system. Our characterization employs large deviation theory (LDT), matrix product states (MPS), and the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm, to compute the current cumulant generating function and its derivatives, which serve as dynamical order parameters. We use this measure to show that when particles cannot exit or enter the lattice vertically, the phase behavior of the multi-lane ASEP mimics that of its 1D counterpart, exhibiting the macroscopic and microscopic signatures of the maximal current, shock, and high-density-low-density coexistence phases. Conversely, when particles are allowed to freely enter and exit the lattice, no such transition is observed. This contrast emphasizes the complex interplay between latitudinal and longitudinal hopping rates and the effect of current biasing. Our results support the potential of tensor networks as a framework to understand classical nonequilibrium statistical mechanics.