Deep generative networks provide a powerful tool for modeling complex data in a wide range of applications. In inverse problems that use these networks as generative priors on data, one must often perform inference of the inputs of the networks from the outputs. Inference is also required for sampling during stochastic training on these generative models. This paper considers inference in a deep stochastic neural network where the parameters (e.g., weights, biases and activation functions) are known and the problem is to estimate the values of the input and hidden units from the output. While several approximate algorithms have been proposed for this task, there are few analytic tools that can provide rigorous guarantees in the reconstruction error. This work presents a novel and computationally tractable output-to-input inference method called Multi-Layer Vector Approximate Message Passing (ML-VAMP). The proposed algorithm, derived from expectation propagation, extends earlier AMP methods that are known to achieve the replica predictions for optimality in simple linear inverse problems. Our main contribution shows that the mean-squared error (MSE) of ML-VAMP can be exactly predicted in a certain large system limit (LSL) where the numbers of layers is fixed and weight matrices are random and orthogonally-invariant with dimensions that grow to infinity. ML-VAMP is thus a principled method for output-to-input inference in deep networks with a rigorous and precise performance achievability result in high dimensions.