Photosynthetically active radiation and comparison of methods for its estimation in equatorial Singapore
Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is an important input variable for urban climate, crop modelling and ecosystem services studies. Despite its importance, only a few empirical studies have been conducted on PAR, its relationship to global solar radiation and sky conditions and its estimation in the tropics. We report in this study, the characterisation of PAR in Singapore through direct measurements and development of models for its estimation using input variables of global solar radiation ( H), photometric radiation ( L), clearness index ( k t ) and sky view factor (SVF). Daily PAR showed a good correlation with daily H and had a comparatively small seasonal variation in PAR due to Singapore's equatorial position. The ratio of PAR to H ( PAR/ H) showed a slight depression in midyear from May to August, which correlated well with seasonal patterns in rainfall over the study period. Hourly PAR/ H increased throughout the day. Three empirical models developed in this study were able to predict daily PAR satisfactorily, with the most accurate model being one which included both H and k t as independent variables. A regression model for estimation of PAR under shaded conditions using SVF produced satisfactory estimation of daily PAR but was prone to high mean percentage error at low PAR levels.
Theoretical and Applied Climatology
- Pub Date:
- February 2016