Dynamical behaviors of nonlinear dust acoustic waves: From plane waves to dust acoustic wave turbulence
The dust acoustic wave (DAW), associated with longitudinal dust oscillations in dusty plasmas, can be self-excited from the free energy of ion streaming. It is not only a fundamental plasma wave but also a paradigm to understand the generic dynamical behaviors of self-excited nonlinear longitudinal density waves through optically monitoring particle motion and dust density evolutions over a large area. In this paper, the dynamical behaviors of the wave-particle interaction and wave breaking in ordered self-excited DAW with straight wave fronts, and the defect-mediated wave turbulence with fluctuating defects and chaotic low amplitude hole filaments along defect trajectories in the 2+1D space-time space, are briefly reviewed. The first experimental observation of acoustic vortices with helical waveforms in self-excited acoustic-type defect-mediated wave turbulence, and the dynamics of spontaneous pair generation, propagation, and pair annihilation of acoustic vortices, is demonstrated and discussed.