The effects of limiter biasing on the equilibrium density and potential profiles of the scrape-off layer (SOL) in tokamak plasma are investigated by including ionization and cross-field mobility. It is shown that a broadening of SOL can take place by the inclusion of ionization for low negative biasing. Various microinstabilities relevant for SOL plasmas have been studied. Generalized low-frequency dispersion relation is derived. It is shown that limiter biasing significantly modifies the SOL fluctuations. It is also shown that growth rate of conductive wall instability is smaller for negative biasing than positive biasing case. New mode, the modified Simon-Hoh, and ion temperature gradient instabilities are found to contribute significantly to the growth of curvature- and electron temperature-gradient-driven conductive wall instabilities.