A combination of observation, theory, modeling, and laboratory plasma experiments provides a multifaceted approach to develop a much greater understanding of how magnetic fields arise in galactic settings and how these magnetic fields mediate important processes that affect the dynamics, distribution, and composition of galactic plasmas. An important emphasis below is the opportunity to connect laboratory experiments to astrophysics. This approach is especially compelling for the galactic neighborhood, where the distribution and character of magnetic fields can be observed with greater detail than what is possible elsewhere in the universe. The ability to produce laboratory plasmas with unparalleled accessibility permits an even greater level of detail to be assessed and exposed. Theory and modeling provide fundamental ways to understand important processes, and they act as the bridge to connect experimental validation to astronomical observations. In many cases the studies that utilize this approach can make use of existing laboratory facilities, resulting in a cost that is quite small compared to the cost of measurements in dedicated space missions.