We investigate relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects for highly-excited bound states in hydrogen-like systems (Rydberg states). In particular, hydrogenic one-loop Bethe logarithms are calculated for all circular states (l = n - 1) in the range 20 <= n <= 60 and successfully compared to an existing asymptotic expansion for large principal quantum number n. We provide accurate expansions of the Bethe logarithm for large values of n, for S, P and circular Rydberg states. These three expansions are expected to give any Bethe logarithm for principal quantum number n > 20 to an accuracy of five to seven decimal digits, within the specified manifolds of atomic states. Within the numerical accuracy, the results constitute unified, general formulae for quantum electrodynamic corrections whose validity is not restricted to a single atomic state. The results are relevant for accurate predictions of radiative shifts of Rydberg states and for the description of the recently investigated laser-dressed Lamb shift, which is observable in a strong coherent-wave light field.