In this doctoral thesis we study zero-mode spectra of Matrix theory and eleven-dimensional supergravity on the plane-wave background. This background is obtained via the Penrose limit of AdS_4 x S^7 and AdS_7 x S^4. The plane-wave background is a maximally supersymmetric spacetime supported by non-vanishing constant four-form flux in eleven-dimensional spacetime. First, we discuss the Matrix theory on the plane-wave background suggested by Berenstein, Maldacena and Nastase. We construct the Hamiltonian, 32 supercharges and their commutation relations. We discuss a spectrum of one specific supermultiplet which represents the center of mass degrees of freedom of N D0-branes. This supermultiplet would also represent a superparticle of the eleven-dimensional supergravity in the large-N limit. Second, we study the linearized supergravity on the plane-wave background in eleven dimensions. Fixing the bosonic and fermionic fields in the light-cone gauge, we obtain the spectrum of physical modes. We obtain the fact that the energies of the states in Matrix theory completely correspond to those of fields in supergravity. Thus, we find that the Matrix theory on the plane-wave background contains the zero-mode spectrum of the eleven-dimensional supergravity completely. Through this result, we can argue the Matrix theory on the plane-wave as a candidate of quantum extension of eleven-dimensional supergravity, or as a candidate which describes M-theory.