Dipole and Higher Multipole Particle Creation in the Steady State Universe
Abstract
The birth of a particle in an otherwise empty universe is studied. The particle is a sphere is a sphere of radius a, with unifrom mass density and surface charge density corresponding to a point dipole p, at the origin. Consistent with equsions of general relativity and Maxwell's equations, gravity and dipole fields propagate away from the particle's initiation with the speed of light. Field energies are supplied by the particle's mass which subsequently decays in time. Asmotic solution to a nonlinear equation for the remaining mass gives the following criterion for the mass to survive the expanding fields: m_{zero} c^{2} greater than u _{p}, where u_{p} is identically = p^{2}/3a_{3} is the selfenergy of the dipole particle. A similar relation is derived for all higher order multipole particles resulting in a parallel inequality with u _{p} replaced by the selfenergy of the multipole particle. In all such events, from the monopole to all higher multipole particles, it is found that if the multipole component of selfenergy is equated to the starting restmass energy of the particle, then the final stae of the system includes a massless multipole particle with its corresponding multipole potential field. As such particles are not observed in nature, it is concluded that for consistency of the steady state universe, the starting rest mass of a multipole particle must exceed the multipole component of its selfenergy.
 Publication:

The Astrophysical Journal
 Pub Date:
 August 1994
 DOI:
 10.1086/174467
 Bibcode:
 1994ApJ...431...69L
 Keywords:

 Cosmology;
 Particle Mass;
 Particle Production;
 Stellar Evolution;
 Universe;
 Computational Astrophysics;
 Field Theory (Physics);
 Relativity;
 Astrophysics;
 COSMOLOGY: THEORY;
 ELEMENTARY PARTICLES