Instrumentation for Far Infrared Reflectivity Measurements with Particular Application to the Oxidation of Titanium.
An investigation has been conducted into the use of far infrared radiation for investigating the oxidation of ion implanted titanium. In the course of this work far infrared reflectivity measurements have been made of three titanium oxides: TiO, TiO(,2), and Ti(,2)O(,3). These measurements indicate that these oxides can be distinguished through reflectivity measurements. Thus, far infrared radiation may be used to follow the oxidation on titanium. In addition, an evaluation has been made of the reflectivity versus angle of incidence method of obtaining the optical constants. From this evaluation it has been determined that this method is not feasible for materials in which the reflectivity is > .4 for all angles less than 70(DEGREES). Concurrent with the above investigation a computer feasibility study has been completed on the use of synchrotron radiation in the infrared. In particular, the change in the infrared power levels after a central radiation cone has been eliminated from the angular distribution of the synchrotron radiation was evaluated. Two synchrotron machines, Aladdin I and Aladdin II, were analzyed in this study. From the computer calculations it was determined that the infrared power levels are effected only marginally by the elimination of this central angle, while the high energy radiation was found to be severely attenuated. In addition, a comparison of the synchrotron infrared intensity to that of a blackbody revealed that the synchrotron is the more intense source by a factor of 10('4) to 10('5). Several investigations with ion implanted titanium have been conducted. Results from surface grain growth experiments on titanium demonstrate that a residual oxide layer will inhibit such growth. This is important for oxidation studies on ion implanted titanium as the short circuit diffusion paths are held practically constant during the oxidation process. An additional study with erbium implanted titanium has shown that the implantation environment will effect the distribution of the implant during thermal annealing. Er-implants performed in a low vacuum environments were found to undergo surface segregation during thermal annealing. Ultrahigh vacuum implants performed after the surface of a titanium sample has been cleaned did not produce surface segregation.
- Pub Date:
- March 1982
- Physics: Condensed Matter