Spacecraft trajectories
Abstract
Laws and general theorems regarding Keplerian motion are reviewed and applied to orbit calculation. Orbit perturbations such as osculatory orbital elements, Lagrange and Gauss equations, and Lagrange equations with only terrestrial deformation are taken into account. Orbit extrapolation as well as backward determination are covered. Geosynchronous, heliosynchronous, and the Ariane transfer orbits are discussed as examples. The equations of motion for a probe touring the solar system, are given along with solution methods. The notion of spheres of influence is introduced and the method of juxtaposed conics is presented. Conditions that prevail when leaving a planet are explained and an interplanetary transfer is studied. Approaching a planet is also treated and the swingby technique with gravitational assist is illustrated.
 Publication:

The Technology of Spaceborne Sci. Expt.
 Pub Date:
 1981
 Bibcode:
 1981tsse.nasa...31C
 Keywords:

 Earth Orbits;
 Interplanetary Transfer Orbits;
 Orbit Calculation;
 Spacecraft Trajectories;
 Trajectory Analysis;
 Equations Of Motion;
 Kepler Laws;
 Orbital Elements;
 Perturbation Theory;
 Swingby Technique;
 Astrodynamics