A threedimensional integral method for calculating incompressible turbulent skin friction
Abstract
A new integral method is proposed for the analysis of threedimensional incompressible turbulent boundary layers. The method utilizes velocity profile expressions in walllaw form to derive two coupled partial differential equations for the two components of surface skin friction. No shape factors or empirical shear stress correlations are needed in the method. The only requirements are a knowledge of the external velocity and streamline distribution and initial values of skin friction along a starting crossflow line of the flow. The method is insensitive to sidewall conditions and may be continued downstream until the complete threedimensional separation line of the flow has been computed. Two comparisons with experiment are shown: a curvedduct unseparated flow and a Tshapedbox separated flow. The calculations are very straightforward and agree reasonably well with the data for friction, crossflow angle, and separation line.
 Publication:

American Society of Mechanical Engineers
 Pub Date:
 May 1975
 Bibcode:
 1975asme.confR....W
 Keywords:

 Boundary Layer Equations;
 Incompressible Boundary Layer;
 Skin Friction;
 Three Dimensional Boundary Layer;
 Turbulent Boundary Layer;
 Boundary Layer Separation;
 Ducted Flow;
 Partial Differential Equations;
 Rotating Disks;
 Shear Stress;
 Velocity Distribution;
 Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer