Modelling, characterization and measurement of oscillator frequency instability
Abstract
A mathematical characterization of oscillator amplitude, frequency and phase instability is given here in terms of the respective structure functions of amplitude, frequency and phase. Two classes of oscillator frequency processes are exploited, viz., those which are stationary and those possessing stationary increments. Numerous examples are given which can be used to characterize and model oscillator frequency spectra, hence frequency instability, observed in quartz crystal oscillators, injectionlocked Gunn oscillators, rubidium and cesium frequency standards, multiplier chains and mixers used in the implementation of coherent communication receivers and transponders. Their affects on the phase error of a phaselocked loop are explored.
 Publication:

Final Report TRW Systems Group
 Pub Date:
 June 1974
 Bibcode:
 1974trw..reptR....L
 Keywords:

 Frequency Stability;
 Mathematical Models;
 Oscillators;
 Phase Shift;
 Frequency Shift;
 Frequency Standards;
 Phase Error;
 Phase Locked Systems;
 Quartz Crystals;
 Electronics and Electrical Engineering