Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of lithic fragments from Luna 20 fines: origin of the cumulate ANT suite and its relationship to high-alumina and mare basalts
Bulk analyses of 157 lithic fragments of igneous origin and analyses of their constituent minerals (plagioclase, pyroxene, olivine, Mg-Al spinel, chromite, ilmenite, armalcolite, baddeleyite, zirkelite, K-feldspar, interstitial glass high in SiO 2 and K 2O) have been used to characterize the lunar highland rock suites at the Luna 20 site. The predominant suite is composed of ANT (anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic) rocks, as found at previous Apollo and Luna sites. This suite consists of an early cumulate member, spinel troctolite, and later cumulate rocks which are gradational from anorthosite to noritic and troctolitic anorthosite to anorthositic norite and troctolite; anorthositic norite is the most abundant rock type and its composition is close to the average composition for the highland rocks at this site. Spinel troctolite is a distinctive member of this suite and is characterized by the presence of Mg-Al spinel, magnesian olivine (average, Fo 83), and plagioclase. High-alumina basalt with low alkali content is another important rock type and melt of this composition may be parental to the cumulate ANT suite. Alkalic high-alumina basalt (KREEP) was not found in our sample, but may be genetically related to the ANT suite in that it may have formed by partial melting of rocks similar to those of the ANT suite. Fractional crystallization of low alkali, high-alumina basalt probably cannot produce alkalic high-alumina basalt because the enrichment in KREEP component is many times greater than the simultaneous change in major element components. Formation of alkalic high-alumina basalt by mechanical mixing of ANT rocks with very KREEP-rich components is not likely because the high-alumina basalt suite falls on a cotectic in the anorthiteolivine-silica system. Mare basalts may also be genetically related in that they may have been derived by remelting of rocks formed from residual liquids of fractional crystallization of parental low-alkali, high-alumina basalt, plus mafic cumulate crystals; the resultant melt would have a negative Eu anomaly and high Fe/Mg and pyroxene/plagioclase ratios.