High-resolution (HR) simulations in cosmology, in particular when including baryons, can take millions of CPU hours. On the other hand, low-resolution (LR) dark matter simulations of the same cosmological volume use minimal computing resources. We develop a denoising diffusion super-resolution emulator for large cosmological simulation volumes. Our approach is based on the image-to-image Palette diffusion model, which we modify to 3 dimensions. Our super-resolution emulator is trained to perform outpainting, and can thus upgrade very large cosmological volumes from LR to HR using an iterative outpainting procedure. As an application, we generate a simulation box with 8 times the volume of the Illustris TNG300 training data, constructed with over 9000 outpainting iterations, and quantify its accuracy using various summary statistics.