Foundation of classical dynamical density functional theory: uniqueness of time-dependent density-potential mappings
When can we uniquely map the dynamic evolution of a classical density to a time-dependent potential? In equilibrium, without time dependence, the one-body density uniquely specifies the external potential that is applied to the system. This mapping from a density to the potential is the cornerstone of classical density functional theory (DFT). Here, we derive rigorous and explicit conditions for such a unique mapping between a nonequilibrium density profile and a time-dependent external potential. We thus prove the underlying assertion of dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) - with or without the so-called adiabatic approximation often used in applications. We also illustrate loopholes when our conditions are violated so that two distinct external potentials result in the same density profiles but different currents, as suggested by the framework of power functional theory (PFT).