Simulating the LOcal Web (SLOW): I. Anomalies in the local density field
Context: Several observations of the local Universe (LU) point towards the existence of very prominent structures. The presence of massive galaxy clusters and local super clusters on the one hand, but also large local voids and under-densities on the other hand. However, it is highly non trivial to connect such different observational selected tracers to the underlying dark matter (DM) distribution. Methods (abridged): We used a 500 Mpc/h large constrained simulation of the LU with initial conditions based on peculiar velocities derived from the CosmicFlows-2 catalogue and follow galaxy formation physics directly in the hydro-dynamical simulations to base the comparison on stellar masses of galaxies or X-ray luminosity of clusters. We also used the 2668 Mpc/h large cosmological box from the Magneticum simulations to evaluate the frequency of finding such anomalies in random patches within simulations. Results: We demonstrate that haloes and galaxies in our constrained simulation trace the local DM density field very differently. Thereby, this simulation reproduces the observed 50% under-density of galaxy clusters and groups within the sphere of ~100 Mpc when applying the same mass or X-ray luminosity limit used in the observed cluster sample (CLASSIX), which is consistent with a ~1.5$\sigma$ feature. At the same time, the simulation reproduces the observed over-density of massive galaxy clusters within the same sphere, which on its own also corresponds to a ~1.5$\sigma$ feature. Interestingly, we find that only 44 out of 15635 random realizations (i.e. 0.28%) are matching both anomalies, making the LU to be a ~3$\sigma$ environment. We finally compared a mock galaxy catalogue with the observed distribution of galaxies in the LU, finding also a match to the observed factor of two over-density at ~16 Mpc as well as the observed 15% under-density at ~40 Mpc distance.
- Pub Date:
- February 2023
- Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics;
- Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies
- 15 pages, 11 figure, submitted to A&