Delegated variational quantum algorithms based on quantum homomorphic encryption
Variational quantum algorithms (VQAs) are considered as one of the most promising candidates for achieving quantum advantages on quantum devices in the noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) era. They have been developed for numerous applications such as image processing and solving linear systems of equations. The application of VQAs can be greatly enlarged if users with limited quantum capabilities can run them on remote powerful quantum computers. But the private data of clients may be leaked to quantum servers in such a quantum cloud model. To solve the problem, a novel quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) scheme which is client-friendly and suitable for VQAs is constructed for quantum servers to calculate encrypted data. Then delegated VQAs are proposed based on the given QHE scheme, where the server can train the ansatz circuit using the client's data even without knowing the real input and the output of the client. Furthermore, a delegated variational quantum classifier to identify handwritten digit images is given as a specific example of delegated VQAs and simulated on the cloud platform of Original Quantum to show its feasibility.
- Pub Date:
- January 2023
- Quantum Physics;
- Computer Science - Cryptography and Security
- 12 pages, 15 figures