Comparing Three Generations of DWave Quantum Annealers for Minor Embedded Combinatorial Optimization Problems
Abstract
Quantum annealing is a novel type of analog computation that aims to use quantum mechanical fluctuations to search for optimal solutions of Ising problems. Quantum annealing in the Transverse Ising model, implemented on DWave QPUs, are available as cloud computing resources. In this article we report concise benchmarks across three generations of DWave quantum annealers, consisting of four different devices, for the NPHard combinatorial optimization problems unweighted maximum clique and unweighted maximum cut on random graphs. The Ising, or equivalently QUBO, formulation of these problems do not require auxiliary variables for order reduction, and their overall structure and weights are not highly complex, which makes these problems simple test cases to understand the sampling capability of current DWave quantum annealers. Alltoall minor embeddings of size $52$, with relatively uniform chain lengths, are used for a direct comparison across the Chimera, Pegasus, and Zephyr device topologies. A grid search over annealing times and the minor embedding chain strengths is performed in order to determine the level of reasonable performance for each device and problem type. Experiment metrics that are reported are approximation ratios for nonbroken chain samples and chain break proportions. How fairly the quantum annealers sample optimal maximum cliques, for instances which contain multiple maximum cliques, is also quantified using entropy of the measured ground state distributions. The newest generation of quantum annealing hardware, which has a Zephyr hardware connectivity, performed the best overall with respect to approximation ratios and chain break frequencies.
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 January 2023
 DOI:
 10.48550/arXiv.2301.03009
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2301.03009
 Bibcode:
 2023arXiv230103009P
 Keywords:

 Quantum Physics;
 Computer Science  Emerging Technologies;
 Mathematics  Combinatorics