Platform-agnostic waveguide integration of high-speed photodetectors with evaporated tellurium thin films
Many attractive photonics platforms still lack integrated photodetectors due to inherent material incompatibilities and lack of process scalability, preventing their widespread deployment. Here, we address the problem of scalably integrating photodetectors in a photonics-platform-independent manner. Using a thermal evaporation and deposition technique developed for nanoelectronics, we show that tellurium, a quasi-2D semi-conductive element, can be evaporated at low temperatures directly onto photonic chips to form air-stable, high-speed, ultrawide-band photodetectors. We demonstrate detection from visible (520 nm) to short-wave infrared (2.4 µm), a bandwidth of more than 40 GHz, and platform-independent scalable integration with photonic structures in silicon, silicon nitride, and lithium niobate.