Ultra-stripped supernovae are different from other terminal explosions of massive stars, as they show little or no ejecta from the actual supernova event1,2. They are thought to occur in massive binary systems after the exploding star has lost its surface through interactions with its companion2. Such supernovae produce little to no kick, leading to the formation of a neutron star without loss of the binary companion, which itself may also evolve into another neutron star2. Here we show that a recently discovered high-mass X-ray binary, CPD −29 2176 (CD −29 5159; SGR 0755-2933)3-6, has an evolutionary history that shows the neutron star component formed during an ultra-stripped supernova. The binary has orbital elements that are similar both in period and in eccentricity to 1 of 14 Be X-ray binaries that have known orbital periods and eccentricities7. The identification of the progenitors systems for ultra-stripped supernovae is necessary as their evolution pathways lead to the formation of binary neutron star systems. Binary neutron stars, such as the system that produced the kilonova GW170817 that was observed with both electromagnetic and gravitational energy8, are known to produce a large quantity of heavy elements9,10.