In many scientific applications the aim is to infer a function which is smooth in some areas, but rough or even discontinuous in other areas of its domain. Such spatially inhomogeneous functions can be modelled in Besov spaces with suitable integrability parameters. In this work we study adaptive Bayesian inference over Besov spaces, in the white noise model from the point of view of rates of contraction, using $p$-exponential priors, which range between Laplace and Gaussian and possess regularity and scaling hyper-parameters. To achieve adaptation, we employ empirical and hierarchical Bayes approaches for tuning these hyper-parameters. Our results show that, while Gaussian priors can attain the minimax rate only in Besov spaces of spatially homogeneous functions, Laplace priors attain the minimax or nearly the minimax rate in both Besov spaces of spatially homogeneous functions and Besov spaces permitting spatial inhomogeneities.