Manipulator Differential Kinematics: Part 2: Acceleration and Advanced Applications
This is the second and final article on the tutorial on manipulator differential kinematics. In Part 1, we described a method of modelling kinematics using the elementary transform sequence (ETS), before formulating forward kinematics and the manipulator Jacobian. We then described some basic applications of the manipulator Jacobian including resolved-rate motion control (RRMC), inverse kinematics (IK), and some manipulator performance measures. In this article, we formulate the second-order differential kinematics, leading to a definition of manipulator Hessian. We then describe the differential kinematics' analytical forms, which are essential to dynamics applications. Subsequently, we provide a general formula for higher-order derivatives. The first application we consider is advanced velocity control. In this section, we extend resolved-rate motion control to perform sub-tasks while still achieving the goal before redefining the algorithm as a quadratic program to enable greater flexibility and additional constraints. We then take another look at numerical inverse kinematics with an emphasis on adding constraints. Finally, we analyse how the manipulator Hessian can help to escape singularities. We have provided Jupyter Notebooks to accompany each section within this tutorial. The Notebooks are written in Python code and use the Robotics Toolbox for Python, and the Swift Simulator to provide examples and implementations of algorithms. While not absolutely essential, for the most engaging and informative experience, we recommend working through the Jupyter Notebooks while reading this article. The Notebooks and setup instructions can be accessed at https://github.com/jhavl/dkt.
- Pub Date:
- July 2022
- Computer Science - Robotics
- See associated Jupyter Notebooks https://github.com/jhavl/dkt Accepted for publication in IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. Published version available at https://doi.org/10.1109/MRA.2023.3270221