State-of-the-art machine learning models can be vulnerable to very small input perturbations that are adversarially constructed. Adversarial training is an effective approach to defend against such examples. It is formulated as a min-max problem, searching for the best solution when the training data was corrupted by the worst-case attacks. For linear regression problems, adversarial training can be formulated as a convex problem. We use this reformulation to make two technical contributions: First, we formulate the training problem as an instance of robust regression to reveal its connection to parameter-shrinking methods, specifically that $\ell_\infty$-adversarial training produces sparse solutions. Secondly, we study adversarial training in the overparameterized regime, i.e. when there are more parameters than data. We prove that adversarial training with small disturbances gives the solution with the minimum-norm that interpolates the training data. Ridge regression and lasso approximate such interpolating solutions as their regularization parameter vanishes. By contrast, for adversarial training, the transition into the interpolation regime is abrupt and for non-zero values of disturbance. This result is proved and illustrated with numerical examples.
- Pub Date:
- May 2022
- Statistics - Machine Learning;
- Computer Science - Cryptography and Security;
- Computer Science - Machine Learning;
- Electrical Engineering and Systems Science - Signal Processing;
- Mathematics - Statistics Theory