Global temperature projections from a statistical energy balance model using multiple sources of historical data
This paper estimates the two-component energy balance model as a linear state space system (EBM-SS model) using historical data. It is a joint model for the temperature in the mixed layer, the temperature in the deep ocean layer, and radiative forcing. The EBM-SS model allows for the modeling of non-stationarity in forcing, the incorporation of multiple data sources for the latent processes, and the handling of missing observations. We estimate the EBM-SS model using observational datasets at the global level for the period 1955 - 2020 by maximum likelihood. We show in the empirical estimation and in simulations that using multiple data sources for the latent processes reduces parameter estimation uncertainty. When fitting the EBM-SS model to eight observational global mean surface temperature (GMST) anomaly series, the physical parameter estimates and the GMST projection under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios are comparable to those from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) models and the climate emulator Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change (MAGICC) 7.5. This provides evidence that utilizing a simple climate model and historical records alone can produce meaningful GMST projections.