Predicting vulnerable source code helps to focus attention on those parts of the code that need to be examined with more scrutiny. Recent work proposed the use of function names as semantic cues that can be learned by a deep neural network (DNN) to aid in the hunt for vulnerability of functions. Combining identifier splitting, which splits each function name into its constituent words, with a novel frequency-based algorithm, we explore the extent to which the words that make up a function's name can predict potentially vulnerable functions. In contrast to *lightweight* predictions by a DNN that considers only function names, avoiding the use of a DNN provides *featherweight* predictions. The underlying idea is that function names that contain certain "dangerous" words are more likely to accompany vulnerable functions. Of course, this assumes that the frequency-based algorithm can be properly tuned to focus on truly dangerous words. Because it is more transparent than a DNN, the frequency-based algorithm enables us to investigate the inner workings of the DNN. If successful, this investigation into what the DNN does and does not learn will help us train more effective future models. We empirically evaluate our approach on a heterogeneous dataset containing over 73000 functions labeled vulnerable, and over 950000 functions labeled benign. Our analysis shows that words alone account for a significant portion of the DNN's classification ability. We also find that words are of greatest value in the datasets with a more homogeneous vocabulary. Thus, when working within the scope of a given project, where the vocabulary is unavoidably homogeneous, our approach provides a cheaper, potentially complementary, technique to aid in the hunt for source-code vulnerabilities. Finally, this approach has the advantage that it is viable with orders of magnitude less training data.
- Pub Date:
- February 2022
- Computer Science - Cryptography and Security;
- Computer Science - Machine Learning;
- Computer Science - Software Engineering
- 17 pages, 6 figures, 6 tables