The coordinates of the KBR (K-band ranging system) antenna phase center of GRACE-type gravity satellites in the satellite Science Reference Frame should be precisely known, and the determination accuracy should reach 0.3 mrad in the Y (pitch) and Z (yaw) directions. Due to the precision limitation of ground measurement and the change of space environment during orbit, the KBR antenna phase center changes. In order to obtain more accurate KBR antenna phase center coordinates, it is necessary to maneuver the satellite to achieve the on-orbit calibration of the KBR antenna phase center. Based on the in-orbit calibration data of KBR of GRACE-FO satellites, a new method is proposed to estimate the antenna phase center of KBR using the inter-satellite range acceleration as the observation value. The antenna phase center of KBR is solved by the robust estimation method, and the obtained calibration results are better than 72 μm in the Y and Z directions and better than 1.3 mm in the X direction, which is 50% better than the least squares estimation algorithm. The accuracy of KBR calibration results obtained by using the data of positive maneuvers or mirror (negative) maneuvers, respectively, does not meet 0.3 mrad. It is shown that mirror maneuvers are required for KBR calibration of a GRACE-type gravity satellite to obtain antenna phase center estimation results that meet the accuracy requirements. The calibration algorithm proposed in this paper can provide reference for KBR antenna phase center calibration of Chinese GRACE-type gravity satellites.