Optimal Purification of a Spin Ensemble by Quantum-Algorithmic Feedback
Purifying a high-temperature ensemble of quantum particles toward a known state is a key requirement to exploit quantum many-body effects. An alternative to passive cooling, which brings a system to its ground state, is active feedback, which stabilizes the system at a chosen target state. This alternative, if realized, offers additional control capabilities for the design of quantum states. Here we present a feedback algorithm applied to a quantum system, which is capable of stabilizing the collective state of an ensemble from its maximum entropy state to the limit of single quantum fluctuations. Our algorithmic approach maximizes the rate of state purification given the system's physical constants; thus it remains the optimal feedback approach even in the presence of dissipation and disorder. We test experimentally the robustness of this feedback on the highly inhomogeneous nuclear-spin ensemble of a semiconductor quantum dot, reducing nuclear-spin fluctuations 83-fold, down to 5.7(2) spin macrostates. Simulations demonstrate that without system-specific inhomogeneities, our algorithm can purify the system down to single-spin fluctuations. Further, we exploit our algorithmic approach to tailor nontrivial nuclear-spin distributions that go beyond simple polarization, including weighted bimodality and latticed multistability. This control is a precursor toward quantum-correlated macrostates, which an extended version of our algorithm could generate in homogeneous systems.
Physical Review X
- Pub Date:
- July 2022
- Quantum Physics;
- Condensed Matter - Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics