Epitaxial titanium nitride microwave resonators: Structural, chemical, electrical, and microwave properties
Titanium nitride is an attractive material for a range of superconducting quantum-circuit applications owing to its low microwave losses, high surface inductance, and chemical stability. The physical properties and device performance, nevertheless, depend strongly on the quality of the materials. In this paper, we focus on the highly crystalline and epitaxial titanium nitride thin films deposited on sapphire substrates using magnetron sputtering at an intermediate temperature (300∘C ). We performed a set of systematic and comprehensive material characterizations to thoroughly understand the structural, chemical, and transport properties. Microwave losses at low temperatures were studied using patterned microwave resonators, where the best internal quality factor in the single-photon regime is measured to be 3.3 ×106 and that in the high-power regime >1.0 ×107 . Adjusted with the material filling factor of the resonators, the microwave loss-tangent here compares well with the previously reported best values for superconducting resonators. This work lays the foundation of using epitaxial titanium nitride for low-loss superconducting quantum circuits.