Optical and Xray GRB Fundamental Planes as cosmological distance indicators
Abstract
Gammaray bursts (GRBs), can be employed as standardized candles, extending the distance ladder beyond Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia, z = 2.26). We standardize GRBs using the threedimensional (3D) Fundamental Plane relation (the Dainotti relation) among the restframe end time of the Xray plateau emission, its corresponding luminosity, and the peak prompt luminosity. Combining SNe Ia and GRBs, we constrain Ω_{M} = 0.299 ± 0.009 assuming a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology with and without correcting GRBs for selection biases and redshift evolution. Using a 3D optical Dainotti correlation, we find this sample is as efficacious in the determination of Ω_{M} as the Xray sample. We trimmed our GRB samples to achieve tighter planes to simulate additional GRBs. We determined how many GRBs are needed as standalone probes to achieve a comparable precision on Ω_{M} to the one obtained by SNe Ia only. We reach the same error measurements derived using SNe Ia in 2011 and 2014 with 142 and 284 simulated optical GRBs, respectively, considering the error bars on the variables halved. These error limits will be reached in 2038 and in 2047, respectively. Using a doubled sample (obtained by future machine learning approaches allowing a lightcurve reconstruction and the estimates of GRB redshifts when z is unknown) compared to the current sample, with error bars halved we will reach the same precision as SNe Ia in 2011 and 2014, now and in 2026, respectively. If we consider the current SNe precision, this will be reached with 390 optical GRBs by 2054.
 Publication:

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
 Pub Date:
 August 2022
 DOI:
 10.1093/mnras/stac1141
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2203.15538
 Bibcode:
 2022MNRAS.514.1828D
 Keywords:

 gammaray burst: general;
 supernovae: general;
 cosmological parameters;
 Astrophysics  Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics;
 Astrophysics  High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena
 EPrint:
 31 pages, 17 figures, 10 tables