Setup for observation thermal voltage noise and determination of absolute temperature and Boltzmann constant
Abstract
We describe a setup for measurement of the absolute zero by JohnsonNyquist thermal noise which can be performed within a week in every highschool or university. Necessary electronic components and technical guidelines for the construction of this noise thermometer are given. The operating temperature used is in the tea cup range from ice to boiling water and in this sense the setup can be given in the hands of every high school and university physics student. The measurement requires a standard multimeter with thermocouple and voltage probe and gives excellent for education purposes percent accuracy. The explanation is oriented to university level but due to the simplicity of the explanation motivated highschool students can follow the explanation derivation of the used formulas for determination of the absolute zero and the Boltzmann constant. As a byproduct our setup gives a new method for the determination of the spectral density of the voltage e _{N} and current noise i _{N} of operational amplifiers.
 Publication:

European Journal of Physics
 Pub Date:
 May 2022
 DOI:
 10.1088/13616404/ac5e15
 arXiv:
 arXiv:2205.06609
 Bibcode:
 2022EJPh...43c5103M
 Keywords:

 noise;
 absolute temperature;
 noise thermometry;
 JohnsonNyquistSchottky noise;
 low noise preamplifier;
 spectral density;
 Physics  Physics Education
 EPrint:
 39 pages, 9 figs, 8 tables, 60 refs, 5 appendices. 2 new appendices contain: the EPO9 (9 ExperimentalPhysics Olympiad) problem with coauthors Aleksander P. Petkov, Leonora Velkoska and Riste PopeskiDimovski