The 2017-2027 United States National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey (DS) for Earth Science and Applications from Space identified Mass Change (MC) as one of five Designated Observables (DOs) having the highest priority in terms of Earth observations required to advance Earth system science over the next decade. In response to this designation, NASA initiated several multi-center studies, with the goal of recommending observing system architectures for each DO for implementation within this decade. This paper provides an overview of the Mass Change Designated Observable (MCDO) Study along with key findings. The study process included: (a) generation of a Science and Applications Traceability Matrix (SATM) that maps required measurement parameters to the DS Science and Applications Objectives; (b) identification of three architecture classes relevant for measuring mass change: Precise Orbit Determination (POD), Satellite-Satellite-Tracking (SST) and Gravity Gradiometry (GG), along with variants within each architecture class; and (c) creation of a Value Framework process that considers science value, cost, risk, schedule, and partnership opportunities, to identify and recommend high value observing systems for further in-depth study. The study team recommended the implementation of an SST architecture, and identified variants that simultaneously (a) satisfy the baseline measurement parameters of the SATM; (b) maximize the probability of providing overlap with the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission currently in operation, accelerating science return from both missions; and (c) provide a pathway towards substantial improvements in resolution and accuracy of mass change data products relative to the program of record.