EMPRESS. VI. Outflows Investigated in Low-mass Galaxies with M ∗ = 104-107 M ⊙: Weak Feedback in Low-mass Galaxies?
We study emission line profiles of 21 nearby low-mass (M * = 104-107 M ⊙) galaxies in deep medium-high resolution spectra taken with Magellan/MagE. These low-mass galaxies are actively star-forming systems with high specific star formation rates of ~100-1000 Gyr-1 that are well above the star formation main sequence and its extrapolation. We identify broad-line components of Hα and [O III]λ5007 emission in 14 out of the 21 galaxies that cannot be explained by the MagE instrumental profile or the natural broadening of line emission. We conduct double-Gaussian profile fitting to the emission of the 14 galaxies, and find that the broad-line components have line widths significantly larger than those of the narrow-line components, indicative of galactic outflows. The broad-line components have moderately large line widths of ~100 km s-1. We estimate the maximum outflow velocities v max and obtain values of ≃60-200 km s-1, which are found to be comparable to or slightly larger than the escape velocities. Positive correlations of v max with star formation rates, stellar masses, and circular velocities extend down into this low-mass regime. Broad- to narrow-line flux ratios (BNRs) are generally found to be smaller than those of massive galaxies. The small v max and BNRs suggest that the mass-loading factors η can be as small as 0.1-1 or below, in contrast to the large η of energy-driven outflows predicted by numerical simulations.
The Astrophysical Journal
- Pub Date:
- April 2022
- Dwarf galaxies;
- Galaxy winds;
- Stellar feedback;
- Galaxy evolution;
- Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies
- 22 pages, 11 figures, Accepted for publication by ApJ