Context. The most nearby clusters are the best places for studying physical and enrichment effects in the faint cluster outskirts. The Abell 3158 cluster (A3158), located at z = 0.059, is quite extended with a characteristic radius r200 = 23.95 arcmin. The metal distribution in the outskirts of this cluster has previously been studied with XMM-Newton. In 2019, A3158 was observed as a calibration target in a pointed observation with the eROSITA telescope on board the Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma mission. Bright large clusters, such as A3158, are ideal for studying the metal distribution in the cluster outskirts, along with the temperature profile and morphology. With the deeper observation time of the eROSITA telescope, these properties can now be studied in greater detail and at larger radii. Furthermore, bright nearby clusters are ideal X-ray instrumental cross-calibration targets as they cover a large fraction of the detector and do not vary in time.
Aims: We first compare the temperature, metal abundance, and normalisation profiles of the cluster from eROSITA with previous XMM-Newton and Chandra data. Following this calibration work, we investigate the temperature and metallicity of the cluster out to almost r200, measure the galaxy velocity dispersion, and determine the cluster mass. Furthermore, we search for infalling clumps and background clusters in the field.
Methods: We determined 1D temperature, abundance, and normalisation profiles from both eROSITA and XMM-Newton data as well as 2D maps of temperature and metal abundance distribution from eROSITA data. The velocity dispersion was determined and the cluster mass was calculated from the mass-velocity dispersion (M200−συ) relation. Galaxy density maps were created to enable a better understanding of the structure of the cluster and the outskirts.
Results: The overall (i.e. in the range 0.2−0.5r500) temperature was measured to be 5.158 ± 0.038 keV. The temperature, abundance, and normalisation profiles of eROSITA all agree to within a confidence level of about 10% with those we determined using XMM-Newton and Chandra data, and they are also consistent with the profiles published previously by the X-COP project. The cluster morphology and surface brightness profile of cluster Abell 3158 appear to be regular at a first glance. Clusters that have such profiles typically are relaxed and host cool cores. However, the temperature profile and map show that the cluster lacks a cool core, as was noted before. Instead, an off-centre cool clump lies to the west of the central cluster region, as reported previously. These are indications that the cluster may be undergoing some sloshing and merger activity. Furthermore, there is a bow-shaped edge near the location of the cool gas clump west of the cluster centre. Farther out west of the X-ray images of A3158, an extension of gas is detected. This larger-scale extension is described here for the first time. The gas metallicity (~0.2 solar) measured in the outskirts (»r500) is consistent with an early-enrichment scenario. The velocity dispersion of the cluster member galaxies is measured to be 1058 ± 41 kms−1 based on spectroscopic redshifts of 365 cluster member galaxies and the total mass is determined as M200,c = 1.38 ± 0.25 × 1015 M⊙. The mass estimate based on the X-ray temperature is significantly lower at M200 = 6.20 ± 0.75 × 1014 M⊙, providing further indications that merger activity boosts the velocity dispersion and/or biases the temperature low. An extended X-ray source located south of the field of view also coincides with a galaxy overdensity with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.05 < z < 0.07. This source further supports the idea that the cluster is undergoing merger activity. Another extended source located north of the field of view is detected in X-rays and coincides with an overdensity of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range of 0.070 < z < 0.077. This is likely a background cluster that is not directly related to A3158. Additionally, the known South Pole Telescope cluster SPT-CL J0342-5354 at z = 0. 53 was detected.
Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Pub Date:
- July 2022
- galaxies: clusters: individual: Abell 3158;
- X-rays: galaxies: clusters;
- galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium;
- Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics
- 14 pages, 17 figures in the main text, and 3 figures in the appendix. Accepted by A&