In this article, we study the asymptotic fields of the Yukawa particle-field model of quantum physics, in the semiclassical regime $\hslash\to 0$, with an interaction subject to an ultraviolet cutoff. We show that the transition amplitudes between final (respectively initial) states converge towards explicit quantities involving the outgoing (respectively incoming) wave operators of the nonlinear Schrödinger-Klein-Gordon (S-KG) equation. Thus, we rigorously link the scattering theory of the Yukawa model to that of the Schrödinger-Klein-Gordon equation. Moreover, we prove that the asymptotic vacuum states of the Yukawa model have a phase space concentration property around classical radiationless solutions. Under further assumptions, we show that the S-KG energy admits a unique minimizer modulo symmetries and identify exactly the semiclassical measure of Yukawa ground states. Some additional consequences of asymptotic completeness are also discussed, and some further open questions are raised.