In recent years, there has been increasing interest to incorporate attention into deep learning architectures for biomedical image segmentation. The modular design of attention mechanisms enables flexible integration into convolutional neural network architectures, such as the U-Net. Whether attention is appropriate to use, what type of attention to use, and where in the network to incorporate attention modules, are all important considerations that are currently overlooked. In this paper, we investigate the role of the Focal parameter in modulating attention, revealing a link between attention in loss functions and networks. By incorporating a Focal distance penalty term, we extend the Unified Focal loss framework to include boundary-based losses. Furthermore, we develop a simple and interpretable, dataset and model-specific heuristic to integrate the Focal parameter into the Squeeze-and-Excitation block and Attention Gate, achieving optimal performance with fewer number of attention modules on three well-validated biomedical imaging datasets, suggesting judicious use of attention modules results in better performance and efficiency.
- Pub Date:
- October 2021
- Electrical Engineering and Systems Science - Image and Video Processing;
- Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence;
- Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition;
- Mathematics - Optimization and Control