SymbioLCD: Ensemble-Based Loop Closure Detection using CNN-Extracted Objects and Visual Bag-of-Words
Loop closure detection is an essential tool of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) to minimize drift in its localization. Many state-of-the-art loop closure detection (LCD) algorithms use visual Bag-of-Words (vBoW), which is robust against partial occlusions in a scene but cannot perceive the semantics or spatial relationships between feature points. CNN object extraction can address those issues, by providing semantic labels and spatial relationships between objects in a scene. Previous work has mainly focused on replacing vBoW with CNN-derived features. In this paper, we propose SymbioLCD, a novel ensemble-based LCD that utilizes both CNN-extracted objects and vBoW features for LCD candidate prediction. When used in tandem, the added elements of object semantics and spatial-awareness create a more robust and symbiotic loop closure detection system. The proposed SymbioLCD uses scale-invariant spatial and semantic matching, Hausdorff distance with temporal constraints, and a Random Forest that utilizes combined information from both CNN-extracted objects and vBoW features for predicting accurate loop closure candidates. Evaluation of the proposed method shows it outperforms other Machine Learning (ML) algorithms - such as SVM, Decision Tree and Neural Network, and demonstrates that there is a strong symbiosis between CNN-extracted object information and vBoW features which assists accurate LCD candidate prediction. Furthermore, it is able to perceive loop closure candidates earlier than state-of-the-art SLAM algorithms, utilizing added spatial and semantic information from CNN-extracted objects.
- Pub Date:
- October 2021
- Computer Science - Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition;
- Computer Science - Robotics
- 7 pages. Accepted at 2021 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)