Galaxy cluster masses, rich with cosmological information, can be estimated from internal dark matter (DM) velocity dispersions, which in turn can be observationally inferred from satellite galaxy velocities. However, galaxies are biased tracers of the DM, and the bias can vary over host halo and galaxy properties as well as time. We precisely calibrate the velocity bias, b_v -- defined as the ratio of galaxy and DM velocity dispersions -- as a function of redshift, host halo mass, and galaxy stellar mass threshold (Mstarsat), for massive halos (M200c > 1e13.5 msun) from five cosmological simulations: IllustrisTNG, Magneticum, Bahamas + Macsis, The Three Hundred Project, and MultiDark Planck-2. We first compare scaling relations for galaxy and DM velocity dispersion across simulations; the former is estimated using a new ensemble velocity likelihood method that is unbiased for low galaxy counts per halo, while the latter uses a local linear regression. The simulations show consistent trends of b_v increasing with M200c and decreasing with redshift and Mstarsat. The ensemble-estimated theoretical uncertainty in b_v is 2-3% but becomes percent-level when considering only the three highest resolution simulations. We update the mass-richness normalization previously estimated by Farahi et al. (2016) for an SDSS redMaPPer cluster sample. The improved accuracy of our b_v estimates reduces the mass normalization uncertainty from 22% to 8%, demonstrating that dynamical estimation techniques can be competitive with weak lensing in calibrating population mean masses. We discuss necessary steps for further improving this precision. Our estimates for b_v(M200c, Mstarsat, z) are made publicly available.
- Pub Date:
- October 2021
- Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics;
- Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies
- 8 figures, 14 pages in main text + 5 figures, 3 pages in Appendix. Comments are welcome!