The action functional for a linear elastic medium with dislocations is given. The equations of motion following from this action reproduce the Peach-Köhler and Lorentzian forces experienced by dislocations. The explicit expressions for singular and finite parts of the self-force acting on a curved dislocation are derived in the framework of linear theory of elasticity of an isotropic medium. The velocity of dislocation is assumed to be arbitrary but less than the shear wave velocity. The nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits are investigated. In the ultrarelativistic limit, the explicit expression for the leading contribution to the self-force is obtained. In the case of slowly moving dislocations, the effective equations of motion derived in the present paper reproduce the known results.